Up to date knowledge

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At Balgowlah Physio, we endeavour to stay up to date with the latest research and treatment options. We are continuously refreshing our database - we have summarised some interesting new developments below.


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Skou & Roos (2017) analysed data from 9,825 participants with hip or knee osteoarthritis who underwent 6-weeks of supervised exercise and education delivered by trained physiotherapists. At 3-month & 12-month follow-up, participants reported reduced pain & reliance on painkillers, improved physical function & quality of life, as well as comparatively faster results post-operatively.

Full text (PDF)

At Balgowlah Physio, we run the program one-on-one so it can be individualised to you.

Knee Osteoarthritis Patient Information (PDF)

Hip Osteoarthritis Patient Information (PDF)

Hip pain? an injection may not be for you

Meoller et al. (2018) compared a program of physiotherapy over 8 weeks to an corticosteroid injection to a 'wait and see' approach in 204 people with lateral hip pain for more than 3 months. 

After 8 weeks, 77% of those involved with physiotherapy were "moderately better" compared to 58% after a corticosteroid injection and 29% with a 'wait and see' approach. 

Full text (PDF)

At Balgowlah Physio, we can diagnose your hip pain and design a specific exercise program for you.


Furunes et al. (2017) randomised 173 patients aged between 25 and 55 years old with 12 month history or more of low back pain and localised degenerative changes at L4-5 or L5-S1 or both to either surgery (total disc replacement) or 5 weeks of "hands-off" multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MDR). 

At 8 year follow up, while there were subtle differences, these were not found to be clinically significant.

Imagine the results if the MDR included 10 weeks of hands-on physiotherapy!

“Considering the risk of surgical complications and the significant number of patients who achieve a clinically important improvement after rehabilitation, the first choice of treatment should be multidisciplinary rehabilitation.”

It is hard to believe that one-third of patients attending orthopaedic review in Australia had not had a trial of non-pharmacological management (such as physiotherapy) (Haskins et al. 2013). 

1-page summary (PDF)   Full text (PDF)

As a sports physio in Balgowlah, we have extensive experience in combining hands-on treatment and individualised exercises to minimise the likelihood for surgery.

knee osteoarthritis? Rotator cuff tear? don't stop moving!

Physio in Balgowlah, Balgowlah Physio

Chakravarty et al. (2008) investigated knee XR changes and signs of osteoarthritis (OA) in 45 long distance runners versus 53 sedentary individuals over 12 years with a mean age of 58. Long distance running (average of 214 mins a week) was not associated with accelerated incidence or severity of radiographic OA. 

20% of runners had OA compared to 32% of controls

2.2% of runners had severe OA compared to 9.4% of controls (not statistically significant)

As a sports physio in Balgowlah we stand by…

"Long-distance running or other routine vigorous activities should not be discouraged among healthy older adults out of concern for progression of knee OA."

1-page summary (PDF)   Full text (PDF)

Gumina et al. (2018) critiqued bilateral shoulder MRI of 25 people with mean age of 57 with an old (>20 year) unilateral arm amputation. A partial or a full thickness tear was found in only 20% of the cuffs on the healthy side, 32% on the amputee side.

The authors suggest shoulder non-use as a risk factor for rotator cuff tear. However, we cannot say for certain, as this would require more strict research methodologies.  

Full text (PDF)

At Balgowlah Physio, we advocate appropriate strengthening to help joints move freely and make tendons more resilient. 


Soomro et al. (2018) conduct injury surveillance across all teams playing in the Sydney Grade Cricket competition during the 2015/2016 season. Lower back injuries (20%) were the most common injuries followed by foot (14%), hand (13.75%), knee (7.5%) and calf (7.5%).

High workloads or inadequate physical conditioning may contribute to such injuries. The study suggests that coaches and administrators must develop and implement cricket-specific injury prevention programmes.

Full text (PDF)

As a sports physio in Balgowlah, we perform pre-season screening tests for fast bowlers and prescribe individualised strength and flexibility programmes to target identified at-risk areas.

Physio in Balgowlah, Balgowlah Physio

stop your achilles tendinitis & plantar fasciitis

Chan et al. (2018) analysed 320 novice runners on a treadmill at 8km/h and 12km/h. Half were given 2 weeks of gait retraining and real-time visual feedback, while the other half were not given feedback. Based on vertical ground-reaction force signals, participants were asked to "run softer".

At 12-month follow-up, the occurrence of  running-related musculoskeletal injury was 62% lower in the gait retraining group. Achilles tendinitis and calf strains were reported in the gait retraining group, whereas plantar fasciitis and patellofemoral pain were most commonly reported injuries in the control group.

Full text (PDF) 

As a sports physio in Balgowlah, we can critically examine your gait pattern and implement strategies to minimise calf, Achilles and plantarfascia stress when walking and running.

Physio in Balgowlah, Balgowlah Physio

Pilates can improve chronic neck pain

Cazotti et al. (2018) randomised 64 patients with 3-month or more history of mechanical neck pain into either a Pilates exercise group or control group. Pilates consisted of 60 min sessions, twice a week for 12 weeks run by a certified instructor.

The Pilates group showed high adherence (91%) and pain reduced by 45% (compared to 7.5% in control group) over 90 days.

Pilates can be a low risk, effective tool in managing chronic neck pain. It is a powerful method when “direct pathoanatomical cause of mechanical neck pain is rarely identifiable”. Pilates principles can all positively assist with self-management strategies for pain including entering, concentration, control, precision, flow and breathing.

Full text (PDF)

At Balgowlah Physio, we can individualise a Pilates program to mimic and enhance the results of this study in combination with hands-on therapy.

Physio in Balgowlah, Balgowlah Physio

reduce pain prior to back surgery with physio

Lindbäck et al. (2018) randomised 197 people (mean 59 years old) who were scheduled for surgery because of disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolithesis or degenerative disc disease to either pre-surgery physiotherapy or standardised information pre-surgery. Patients were seen twice a week for 9 weeks for hands-on therapy combined with supervised exercise and cognitive approach therapy.

The pre-surgery physiotherapy group significantly reduced back and leg pain, anxiety, depression & fear-avoidance, as well as improved self-efficacy and higher physical activity levels.

There were minimal differences between the groups at 1-year post surgery follow-up, except for a higher activity level in the physiotherapy group.

1-page summary (PDF) Full text (PDF)

At Balgowlah Physio, we can implement an individualised hands-on and exercise program to reduce your back pain and potentially shrink the need for surgery.